Land: Formed on November 1, 1956 following the reorganization of the States,
Andhra Pradesh is the fifth largest State in the country with an area
of 2,76,754 sq. km, accounting for 8.4 % of India's territory. The State
has the longest coastline (972 km) compared with other States in the Union.
Andhra Pradesh is endowed with a variety of physiographic features ranging
from high hills, undulating plains to a coastal deltaic environment.
Language: Telugu, the State's official language, was described by C.P.
Brown as the 'Italian of the East'.
Major cities: Guntur, Vijayawada, Vishakhapatnam, Tirupati, Warangal,
Land: Known as the North East Frontier Agency before 1962, Arunachal Pradesh
was constitutionally a part of Assam. However it was administered by the
Ministry of External Affairs until 1962 and subsequently by the Ministry
of Home Affairs, through the Governor of Assam. In 1972, it was constituted
as a Union Territory and renamed Arunachal Pradesh. On February 20, 1987
it became the 24th State of the Indian Union.
Land: Assam is the sentinel of north-east India and gateway to the North-Eastern
States. It is home to 16 Scheduled Castes and 23 Scheduled Tribes, constituting
7.4 and 12.82 per cent respectively of the State's population. There are
scattered populations of Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains in different parts
of the State notable among them being the Buddhists from the Khamti tribes
and the Assamese Sikhs of Borkhola in the district of Nagaon.
Major cities: Guwahati, Dibrugarh, Jorhat
Land: One of the major States of the Indian Union,
Bihar has a total geographical area of about 93.60 lakh hectare. Bounded
on the north by Nepal, east by West Bengal, west by Uttar Pradesh and
south by Jharkhand, Bihar is irrigated by several rivers such as the Son,
Kosi, Gandak, Ghaghara and so on.
Languages: Maithili, Hindi, Urdu, English
Major cities: Gaya
Land: On November 1, 2000, a new State - Chhattisgarh - was carved out
of the State of Madhya Pradesh.
Languages: Chhattisgarhi, Hindi
Land: The national capital of India was made a Union Territory in 1956
and was granted statehood in 2003.
Languages: Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, English
Literacy : 81.82%
Land: Situated on the western coast of the Indian peninsula, Goa was liberated
from Portugese control on December 16, 1961 and made a composite Union
Territory with Daman & Diu. On May 30, 1987 Goa was conferred statehood
and today it is a major tourist destination.
Languages: Konkani, Marathi, Hindi, English
Land: Situated on the west coast of India, the State is bounded by the
Arabian sea on the west and Pakistan in the north. With the reorganisation
of the States, the Union of the States of Saurashtra and the Union Territory
of Kachchh along with the former British Gujarat became a part of the
biggest bilingual State of Bombay. The present State of Gujarat came into
being on May 1, 1960.
Languages: Gujarathi, Marathi, Hindi
Major cities: Vadodara, Surat, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Rajkot
Land: Haryana was made into a full-fledged State with the reorganisation
of Punjab on November 1, 1966.
Languages: Hindi, Punjabi
Major cities: Faridabad, Ambala, Hissar, Rohtak
Land: A land of legends and spectacular natural beauty, Himachal Pradesh
came into being as a union territory in April 1948. Following the reorganisation
of the States in 1966 the hilly areas of Punjab were merged with Himachal
Languages: Pahari, Hindi
Major cities: Kulu, Kangra, Nurpur, Lahul-Spiti, Naggar
Jammu & Kashmir
Land: The State was governed by Dogra ruler till 1947 when Maharajah Hari
Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of joining the Indian
Union on October 26, 1947.
Capital: Srinagar (summer) Jammu (winter)
Languages: Kashmiri, Dogri, Urdu, Ladakhi
Major cities: Jammu, Poonch, Udhampur
Land: One of the oldest demands for a separate state was fulfilled when
the Parliament passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill on August, 2, 2000
to create the State of Jharkhand.
Languages: Santhali, Kurukh, Mundari, Nagpuria, Kotha, Kurmali
Literacy : 54.13%
Land: After Independence, a united Mysore state was created in 1956 and
was renamed Karnataka in 1973. It lies to the south of Goa and Maharashtra,
to the west of Andhra Pradesh, to the west of Tamil Nadu and to the north
Languages: Kannada, Tamil, Urdu
Major cities: Mysore, Hubli, Mangalore, Belgaum
Land: Situated on the southern tip of India in between the Arabian sea
on the west and the Western Ghats on the east, Kerala is fringed by coconut
palms and laved by the sea.
Major cities: Kozhikode, Ernakulam, Quilon
Land: Undivided Madhya Pradesh was founded on November 1, 1956, but it
came into existence in its present form on Novemeber 1, 2000 following
its bifurcation to create a new State of Chhattisgarh.
Languages: Hindi, Urdu
Major cities: Indore, Jabalpur, Gwalior, Ujjain
Land: The administrative evolution of the State of Maharashtra is the
outcome of the linguistic reorganisation of the States of India, effected
on May 1, 1960. The State was formed by bringing together all contiguous
Languages: Marathi, Gujarati, Hindi
Major cities: Pune, Aurangabad, Nagpur
Land: The State is divided into two tracts - the hills comprising of five
districts and the plains with four districts. Myanmar attained full fledged
Statehood on January 21, 1972.
Land: The hill State of Meghalaya is predominantly inhabited by the Khasis,
the Jaintias and the Garo tribal communities.
Languages: Assamese, Khasi, Garo
Land: The mountainous region of Mizoram became the 23rd State of the Indian
Union in February 1978. Sandwitched between Myanmar in the east and the
south and Bangladesh in the west, Mizoram occupies an area of great strategic
importance in the north-eastern corner of India.
Land: Situated in the extreme north-east of the country, Nagaland was
given the status of State of the Indian Union on December 1, 1963.
Major cities: Dimapur, Mokokchung
Land: Various princely states in and around Orissa were merged to form
the State of Orissa in January 1949. It is situated in the north-eastern
part of the Indian peninsula.
Languages: Oriya, Bengali
Major cities: Puri, Cuttack, Rourkela
Land: Situated in the north-western corner of the country, Punjab, the
land of the five rivers, is bound on the west by Pakistan and on the north
by Jammu and Kashmir.
Languages: Punjabi, Hindi
Major cities; Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Patiala
Land: The present State came into being formally in 1958. The entire western
flank of the State borders with Pakistan, on the north and northeast by
the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh, on the east and southeast
by the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, and on the southwest
by the state of Gujarat.
Languages: Rajasthani, Hindi
Major cities: Jodhpur, Ajmer, Udaipur, Alwar, Bikaner
Land: Bounded by Bhutan in the east, Tibet in the north, Nepal in the
west and the State of West Bengal in the south, Sikkim lies in the heart
of the towering eastern Himalayas.
Languages: Nepali, Lepcha, Bhutia
Land: The State is the successor to the old Madras Presidency, which in
1901 covered the bulk of the southern peninsula. The composite Madras
State was later reorganised and the present State was formed.
Major cities : Coimbatore, Conoor, Madurai, Salem
Land: Tripura has a long historic past and a unique tribal culture. It
is strategically situated between the river valleys of Myanmar and Bangladesh.
Language: Kakbark, Manipuri, Bengali
Land: The British combined Agra and Oudh into one province and called
it United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The name was shortened to the United
Provinces in 1935. In January 1950 the United Provinces was renamed as
Uttar Pradesh, which is the largest State in the Union.
Language: Hindi, Urdu
Major cities: Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, Aligarh, Bareilly, Mathura,
Land: On November 8, 2000, Uttaranchal became a full-fledged state of
India after it was carved out of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous State
Languages: Garhwali, Hindi
Literacy : 72.28%
Land: The land frontiers of the State touch Bangladesh in the east and
is separated from Nepal in the west; Bhutan lies in the north east while
Sikkim is in the north.
Major cities: Darjeeling, Kharagpur, Murshidabad
- Compiled from State Government websites
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Land: The Union Territory of Andaman & Nicobar has been divided into
2 districts - District of Andamans and District of Nicobars. Port Blair,
the capital of this territory, is also the headquarters of Andaman District,
which is the Northern part of Andaman & Nicobar Islands and comprises
of 550 islands, islets and rocks out of which only 26 are inhabited. As
per the provisional Census of 2001, the Islands have a population of 3,66,265.
There are four primitive tribes in Andaman District and they have been
recognised as belonging to the Negrito stock, namely Great Andamanese,
Onges, Jarawas and Sentinelese.
Languages: Hindi, Bengali, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Punjabi, Nicobarese
Literacy: As per the provisional Census figures of 2001, the Union Territory
has a literacy rate of 81.18 per cent.
Land: Chandigarh was constituted as a Union Territory on November 1, 1966.
It serves as the joint capital of both Punjab and Haryana States. It is
bounded on the north and west by Punjab and on the east and south by Haryana.
Languages: Punjabi, Hindi, English
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
Land: Surrounded by Gujarat and Maharashtra, it consists of two pockets,
namely, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The territory's capital is Silvassa.
Languages: Gujarati, Bhili, Hindi, English
Literacy: 60.03 per cent
Daman & Diu
Land: A colony of the Portugese, it was made an integral part of India
in 1961. It is bound on the east by Gujarat, on the west by the Arabian
sea, on the north by the Kolak river and on the south by the Kalai river.
Diu is an island connected by two bridges.
Languages: Marathi, Gujarathi, Hindi, English
Land: The Laccadives, Minicoy and Amindivi group of islands were renamed
as Lakshadweep in 1973. Lakshadweep, a group of coral islands consist
of 12 atolls, three reefs and submerged sand banks. Of its 36 islands
only 11 are inhabited. The capital is Kavaratti.
Languages: Malayalam, Hindi, English
Land: The territory of Pondicherry comprises the former French establishment
Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam, which lie scattered in South India.
The capital Pondicherry was the original headquarters of the French in
Languages: Tamil, French, Hindi, English