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It has common borders with Pakistan, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Sri Lanka is separated from India by the narrow Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar and the Indonesian Island of Sumatra is very near the southernmost island of the Nicobar chain.


India experiences a range of temperature and rainfall varying with latitude and altitude. The south-west monsoon brings moderate to heavy rains between June and September. Between October and December the north-east monsoon appears in the Bay of Bengal, bringing rains to the south east coast.

Major Natural Features

The Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri are among the major rivers of India.

The Himalaya and Karakoram chain mark the northern frontiers. The Aravalli, Vindhya and Satpura Hills and the North Eastern Hills lie in Middle India while the Eastern and Western Ghats enclose the Deccan plateau. The Thar and Kutch deserts are in the North-West, bordering Pakistan.

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