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Afghanistan has a few rivers such as Oxus, Hermand, Kabul, Hari Rud and Surkh Rud. The Kabul River is dry after spring but before entering Pakistan, it is joined by three other rivers and swells to a mighty river.

The irrigation systems were damaged during the war. Only one in Parwan and two in Kandahar are functional.


The climate is arid, gets very little rain. Winters are very cold, with considerable snowfall which may last the year round on mountain summits. Kabul, Jan. 27ºF (-2.8ºC), July 76º(24.4º. Annual rainfall 13” (338 mm).


According to the World Bank Atlas, Afghanistan’s carbon dioxide emissions were equivalent of 0.1 tonnes per capita in 1996.


The total forest covered area is 2.1% of the total land area (3.1% in 1990). Timber production in 1998 was 8.09m. cu.metres.


The greater part of Afghanistan is mountainous but there are many fertile plains and valleys. Principal crops include grains, rice, fresh and dried fruits, vegetables, cottonseed and potatoes. The area under cultivation in 1998 was 91,000 ha. For several years Afghanistan’s annual narcotics production has been very high.


In 1998 the total catch was estimated to be 1,200 tonnes, exclusively from inland waters.

Power Generation

Total power generation capacity cannot meet the requirements of the growing population and the fledgling light industries. Negotiations are in progress for purchase of electricity from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan for meeting needs of the North.

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